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Nutrition and Diseases

Nutrition plays a very important role in our lifes to be healthy. A diet providing the required amounts of nutrients according to our body needs helps us to keep in good health.

But what if the diet provides too much or too little of the nutrients. It leads to illhealth.You can broadly classify the state of illhealth in two ways : -

Diseases caused due to undernutrition
Diseases caused due to overnutrition

DISEASES CAUSED BY UNDERNUTRITION
Diseases caused due to the inadequate intake of NUTRIENTS by the body.
They are -

PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE & FAT DEFIENCY

1] PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION -

It is various pathological conditions arising from defiency of protein & energy and is commonly associated with infections.
Clinical features are observed in two forms

a] Marasmus - characterised by very low body weightfor age, loss of subcutaneous fat, gross muscle wasting & is commonly seen in infants and young children.

b] Kwashiorkor - characterized by oedema and very low body weight for age.

DEFICIENCY OF VITAMINS

VITAMIN A DEFIENCY-

1] XEROPTHALMIA-
eye symptoms arising from the defiency of vitamin A manifested by night blindness (inability to see in dim light or around dusk),
dryness of conjunctiva, triangular spots on the oonjunctiva & dryness or even complete destruction of the cornea.

2] SCALINESS OF THE SKIN SOMETIMES ACNE

3] FAILURE OF REPRODUCTION

VITAMIN B GROUP DEFIENCY-

a) Thiamine deficiency (Vit B 1 )


BERI BERI
It manifest itself as -

WET BERIBERI - characterized by accumulation of fluid in the body which can lead to heart failure. There may also be pain in leg muscles on pressure.

DRY BERIBERI - characterized by weakness in leg muscles progessively making the patient bedridden.

b) Riboflavin Deficiency( Vit B 2)
ARIBOFLAVINOSIS - the symptoms are -
- Angular stomatitis i.e. cracks on both sides of the mouth
- Glossitis iith the tongue raw & red
- Burning sensation on consumption of spicy & hot food.
- Cheilosis the lips develop cracks & become red

c) Niacin Deficiency

PELLAGRA - characterized by
Skin changes (dermatosis) which are symetrical and seen on exposed parts of the body like forearms,legs,face & neck.The skin becomes dry & scaly.
Diarrhoea
Mental changes like irritability,forgetfulness,loss of orientationheadache ,sleeplessnesstremors of hands & legs and mental depression.

d) Vitamin B 12 & Folic Acid Deficiency
ANAEMIA -
A condition in which haemoglobin falls below normal & seen in form of symptoms like inability to make continous physical work,fatigue, giddiness,breathlessness on exertion,loss of appetite,sleeplessness & palpitation.

VITAMIN C DEFIENCY-
SCURVY -
Characterized by spongy bleeding gums,tiny spots onthe skin above the knees and on the lower parts of the thighs due to bleeding.

VITAMIN D DEFIENCY-
RICKETS -
(seen in children)
The symptoms seen are the muscles lose their firmness & become flabby,the milestones are delayed,defomities of the boneslike protruding of the breast bone or bow legs or knock knees.

OSTEOMALACIA - (seen in adults)
The symptoms are pain in the ribs, lower back & legs,pain on applicatin of pressure on hip bone,sometimes fracture of the bones.

VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY-
STERILITY EFFECT -
This is because lack of this vitamin can cause degeneration of the germinal epithelium of the testis in males &resorption of the foetus after conception in females.

DEGENERATION OF RENAL TUBULAR CELLS

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY-
BLEEDING DISORDERS

DEFICIENCY OF MINERALS

IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS-
GOITRE -
Swelling in the neck due to enlargement of the thyroid gland & the effects of increased levels of thyroxin seen in the metabolic, cardiac, nervous & skeletal systems.

HYPOTHYROIDISM - Symptoms are thickening of pretibial skin, thinning of the hair,clubbing of fingers & toes

SUBNORMAL INTELLIGENCE & MENTAL DEFIENCY

HEARING DEFECTS

SQUINT

SPASTICITY & MUSCULAR WEAKNESS

INTRAUTERINE DEATH

MAGNESIUM DEFIENCY-
INCREASED IRRITABILITY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL VASODILATATION

CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS

CALCIUM DEFIENCY-
TETANY -
Manifested as convulsive seizures, gastrointestinal; symptoms likeabdominalcramps & vomitting ,respiratory symptoms of hoarsness & laryngeal stridor.

COPPER DEFIENCY-
ANAEMIA -
Due to failure of the intestines to absorb iron in adequate quantities.

DISEASES CAUSED BY OVERNUTRITION
Diseases caused due to the excessive intake of nutrients compared to the amounts required by the body.

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF FATS & CARBOHYDRATES
OBESITY -
Accumulation of excessive fat in the body causing body weight more than 20% of the normal body weight.

DIABETES MELLITES -
Increased insulin levels in blood leading to symptims like increased frequency of urination, increased thirst , increased appetite , weight loss, weakness,crops of boilsleg cramps,pruritis vulvae in females.

HYPERTENTION -
Increased arterial pressureabove 140/90 mm. Hg.either symptomless or presented by occipital headache.

CORONARY HEART DISEASES -
It is a result of an inadequate supply of blood to the heart muscles due to obstruction in the flow of blood through the coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart.

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF VITAMINS

HYPERVITAMINOSIS D -
The symptoms include nausea, vomitting, constipation, drowsiness, signs of renal failure, metastatic calcification in arteries, kidneys etc.

HYPERVITAMINOSIS B6 -
SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF MINERALS

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM -
DEPRESSED ACTIVITY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM

DEPRESSED ACTIVITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF FLUORINE -
FLUOROSIS -
Symptoms of dental fluorosis being mottling of teeth , erosion of the enamel, pitting of the teeth and symptoms of skeletal fluorosis being difficulty in movements, skeletal deformities.

EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF COBALT -
POLYCYTHEMIA

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