Nutrition plays a very important
role in our lifes to be healthy. A diet providing the required
amounts of nutrients according to our body needs helps us
to keep in good health.
But what if the diet provides
too much or too little of the nutrients. It leads to illhealth.You
can broadly classify the state of illhealth in two ways :
Diseases caused due to undernutrition
Diseases caused due to overnutrition
DISEASES CAUSED BY UNDERNUTRITION
Diseases caused due to the inadequate intake of NUTRIENTS
by the body. They are
PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE & FAT DEFIENCY
1] PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION -
It is various pathological conditions arising from defiency
of protein & energy and is commonly associated with infections.
Clinical features are observed in two forms
a] Marasmus - characterised by very low body
weightfor age, loss of subcutaneous fat, gross muscle wasting
& is commonly seen in infants and young children.
b] Kwashiorkor - characterized
by oedema and very low body weight for age.
VITAMIN A DEFIENCY-
eye symptoms arising from the defiency of vitamin A manifested
by night blindness (inability to see in dim light or around
dryness of conjunctiva, triangular spots on the oonjunctiva
& dryness or even complete destruction of the cornea.
2] SCALINESS OF THE SKIN SOMETIMES
3] FAILURE OF REPRODUCTION
VITAMIN B GROUP DEFIENCY-
a) Thiamine deficiency (Vit B 1 )
It manifest itself as -
WET BERIBERI - characterized by accumulation of fluid in the
body which can lead to heart failure. There may also be pain
in leg muscles on pressure.
DRY BERIBERI - characterized by weakness in leg muscles progessively
making the patient bedridden.
b) Riboflavin Deficiency(
Vit B 2)
ARIBOFLAVINOSIS - the symptoms are -
- Angular stomatitis i.e. cracks on both sides of the mouth
- Glossitis iith the tongue raw & red
- Burning sensation on consumption of spicy & hot food.
- Cheilosis the lips
develop cracks & become red
c) Niacin Deficiency
PELLAGRA - characterized by
Skin changes (dermatosis) which are symetrical and seen on
exposed parts of the body like forearms,legs,face & neck.The
skin becomes dry & scaly.
Mental changes like irritability,forgetfulness,loss of orientationheadache
,sleeplessnesstremors of hands & legs and mental depression.
d) Vitamin B 12 & Folic
A condition in which haemoglobin falls below normal &
seen in form of symptoms like inability to make continous
physical work,fatigue, giddiness,breathlessness on exertion,loss
of appetite,sleeplessness & palpitation.
VITAMIN C DEFIENCY-
Characterized by spongy bleeding gums,tiny spots onthe skin
above the knees and on the lower parts of the thighs due to
VITAMIN D DEFIENCY-
RICKETS - (seen in children)
The symptoms seen are the muscles lose their firmness &
become flabby,the milestones are delayed,defomities of the
boneslike protruding of the breast bone or bow legs or knock
OSTEOMALACIA - (seen in adults)
The symptoms are pain in the ribs, lower back & legs,pain
on applicatin of pressure on hip bone,sometimes fracture of
VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY-
STERILITY EFFECT -
This is because lack of this vitamin can cause degeneration
of the germinal epithelium of the testis in males &resorption
of the foetus after conception in females.
DEGENERATION OF RENAL TUBULAR CELLS
VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY-
IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS-
Swelling in the neck due to enlargement of the thyroid gland
& the effects of increased levels of thyroxin seen in
the metabolic, cardiac, nervous & skeletal systems.
Symptoms are thickening of pretibial skin, thinning of
the hair,clubbing of fingers & toes
SUBNORMAL INTELLIGENCE & MENTAL DEFIENCY
SPASTICITY & MUSCULAR WEAKNESS
INCREASED IRRITABILITY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
Manifested as convulsive seizures, gastrointestinal; symptoms
likeabdominalcramps & vomitting ,respiratory symptoms
of hoarsness & laryngeal stridor.
Due to failure of the intestines to absorb iron in adequate
DISEASES CAUSED BY OVERNUTRITION
Diseases caused due to the excessive intake of nutrients compared
to the amounts required by the body.
INTAKE OF FATS & CARBOHYDRATES
Accumulation of excessive fat in the body causing body
weight more than 20% of the normal body weight.
DIABETES MELLITES -
Increased insulin levels in blood leading to symptims
like increased frequency of urination, increased thirst ,
increased appetite , weight loss, weakness,crops of boilsleg
cramps,pruritis vulvae in females.
Increased arterial pressureabove 140/90 mm. Hg.either
symptomless or presented by occipital headache.
CORONARY HEART DISEASES -
It is a result of an inadequate supply of blood to the heart
muscles due to obstruction in the flow of blood through the
coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart.
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF VITAMINS
HYPERVITAMINOSIS D -
The symptoms include nausea, vomitting, constipation,
drowsiness, signs of renal failure, metastatic calcification
in arteries, kidneys etc.
HYPERVITAMINOSIS B6 -
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF MINERALS
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM
DEPRESSED ACTIVITY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
DEPRESSED ACTIVITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF
Symptoms of dental fluorosis being mottling of teeth , erosion
of the enamel, pitting of the teeth and symptoms of skeletal
fluorosis being difficulty in movements, skeletal deformities.
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF