It is a condition in which, there is large amount of sugar(Glucose)
in the blood. Although sugar is needed to provide energy to
the body, it causes a problem when in excess.
In normal individuals, the
food taken is digested and converted into glucose. Blood carries
this glucose to the body cells. The cells use this glucose
as a source of energy.
In people suffering from Diabetes
Mellitus, this sugar is in excess due to deficiency of a hormone
called Insulin, which is secreted by the cells of pancreas,
an organ situated behind the stomach. Insulin is required
for the entry of glucose in the cells where it is properly
In the absence or deficiency
of insulin, the sugar cannot enter the cells and hence remains
in high amounts in the blood.
the accumulation of sugar in the blood reaches a certain limit,
glucose appears in the urine.
Normally urine does not contain
glucose, but when the glucose appears in the urine it draws
out more water with it and hence there is excessive urination.
Because of excesive urination, there is water loss, which
in turn causes more thirst.
though the glucose content in the blood is in excess, the
cells are deprived of the energy as due to the lack of insulin
the cells are starved of glucose. This causes increase in
appetite.Although the diabetic patients eat more, the cells
never seem to get enough glucose. In desperation, to get energy,
the starved cells begin using fats and proteins from the body,
thereby causing loss of weight and tiredness leading to a
greater risk of developing infection.
It is yet not completely understood
what causes Diabetes.
Heredity - Plays an important role in Diabetes Mellitus.
Age - It can occur at any age.
Sex - Prevalent more in females than males in other countries.
In India, the incidence is more in males than females.
4) Weight - People who are
overweight (Obese) are more prone to develop this illness.
5) Infection/Illness - Congeners
to D. M.
7) Stressful situation.
TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
There are mainly two types
of Diabetes Mellitus commonly seen -
1) IDDM (Insulin Dependent
2) NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent
This group of Diabetics are those who develop this illness
in the early life. The people affected are generally young
lean and thin.
These people do not make sufficient
insulin in their Pancreas and hence have to depend on insulin
given from outside. Their illness cannot be controlled without
This type of Diabetes mellitus
is called as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Growth
This group of diabetics consists of patients who develop this
illness later in life, they are often overweight and may give
family history of late onset Diabetes Mellitus.
It is also noted that this
group of people may not be fat but have potbelly or abdominal
obesity. These patients do produce insulin but require diet
control, exercise and drugs to improve glucose utilization.
They may also require insulin at any stage.
This type of Diabetes Mellitus
is called as Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Maturity
onset Diabetes Mellitus.
seen symptoms of a Diabetic patient are as follows -
1) Excessive urination
4) Loss of weight
5) Feeling of tiredness/Debility
7) Itching &
frequent skin infections.
DIAGNOSIS AND INVESTIGATIONS-
Diagnosis of Diabetes
Mellitus in uncontrolled state has no difficulty. Still a
large number of diabetics go undiagnosed till some complication
forces one's attention to the disease.
must be fasting overnight for at least 12 hours before the
Examination of urine for glucosuria (presence of glucose in
urine) midstream sample of urine should be collected for the
Estimation of blood glucose level in two stages - Fasting
and 2 hours after taking 75 gms of glucose.
3) Glucose tolerance
principle of the treatment is as follows -
1) Diet: -
The diabetic person can eat
almost any food that other people normally eat provided the
food is balanced and within the permissible caloric limits.
Food Exchange: - The idea of
food exchange is to facilitate variation in the diet without
disturbing the caloric intake. This enables the patient to
make the diet exciting and match his own taste and needs.
Otherwise the monotonous diet would make him frustrated and
lose the interest of eating which should never be the case.
He has to enjoy every foodstuff keeping in mind the caloric
2) Meat, fish and pulses
3) Milk and Milk products
6) Oils, fats.
The exchange of food is permissible
within the same group only. It is advised initially to weigh
and measure cooked food. Once the patient is familiar with
the household measures, he usually would himself judge the
permitted amount of food.
The diabetic person
often feels hungry in spite of eating permissible food. In
such a case, he can take food which is low in calories and
hence, is known as free food. These foodstuffs provide a feeling
of fullness and satisfaction.
Low calorie foods/ free foods:
1) Salads - Cucumber, Cabbage,
lettuce, radish, Capsicum, Onion, Tomato
2) Plain Tea/Coffee without
3) Plain lemon juice without
4) Clear soups.
Ideally speaking the diabetic
nutritional plan is balanced diet which helps the person to
attain as well as maintain normal weight appropriate for his
height, age and sex.
The diet would permit the person
to eat everything except things containing sugar, jaggery,
honey etc. He is permitted to eat sweet things once a while
provided proper adjustments are made in the diet.
Failing to restrict himself
the blood sugar can rise leading to long term complications
which are irriversible. The diabetic diet must meet calorie
requirements according to the needs of the patient (Thin,
obese & underweight).
The proportion of energy derived
from the food is as follows: -
Proteins - 15%
Fats - 30 - 35%
Carbohydrates - 55%
The diet presented to the patient
should not interfere with lifestyle of the patient. Diabetic
people are asked to eat at short intervals i. e. not to keep
long gaps between two meals to avoid lowering of blood sugar
Fibre Supplement in Diet: -
It is basically an indigestible form of carbohydrate, which
is present in number of foodstuff such as wholegrain flour,
cereals, wheat bran, legumes, vegetables.
It helps in controlling blood
sugar by slowing absorption of carbohydrates. In addition
high fibre helps in satisfying hunger, reducing high cholesterol
and preventing constipation.
Alcohol: - It provides empty
calories (Calorie without any nutritional value) and hence
should be avoided as far as possible. If one can do without
it then nothing like it. But sometimes it might be advisable
to allow consumption of hard liquor than that of sweet wineor
Drinks should not be taken
on empty stomach and the quantity should not exceed 2 pegs/day.
Instead of oily and spicy snacks normally served with the
drinks, diabetics should eat salads. The diabetics should
avoid fasting as it alters the body metabolism.
2) Exercise: -
Controlled exercise plays an
important role in diabetic management. It helps to increase
glucose utilization, tones up the body and improves circulation.
It helps to build stamina and above all,it provides a source
of well being. The exercise should be done daily. The exercise
intensity or duration should not vary from day to day. One
must keep sugar handy to overcome hypoglycemia (excessive
lowering of sugar level). Change of exercise should be considered
under doctor's advice.
Brisk walking, Jogging, Swimming and Cycling are the best
exercises one can think of doing. These exercise are very
important for the Calorie
Symptoms of Hypoglycemia (Lowering
of Blood Sugar): -
7) Speech difficulty
8) Inability to concentrate
3) Drugs: -
The oral hypoglycemic agents
(OHA) are the medicines taken orally to reduce the blood
sugar. They are mainly used in NIDDM.
It is a hormone produced by
beta cells of pancreas an organ situated behind the stomach.
The first insulin was available in 1921, which was extracted
from the pancreas of cattle and pigs.
With the advancement of Science,
human insulin was first introduced in eighties. The normal
line of treatment followed is roughly as follows -
2) Diet + OHA
3) Diet + Insulin
4) Diet + Insulin + OHA
Type I Diabetes Mellitus :-
Requires Insulin only
Type II Diabetes Mellitus:-
Requires insulin when the OHA fail to control the blood sugar
as in conditions like :-
1) Infection, fever
2) Major surgery
3) Stressful condition
It is a MUST to continue the
antidiabetic drugs even after starting homoeopathic treatment
as these drugs have to be tapered down under a medical consultants
advice before stopping the treatment, as the abrupt stoppage
of these drugs can aggravate the preexisting disease.
Bryonia, Helonias, Lycopodium,
Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Plumbum, Uranium Nitrate, Syzygium,
Coca, lactic acid and Insulin.
Even though constitutional
remedy is the best way of treating this chronic disease,
there are some more specific remedies in the Materia Medica
for Diabetes Mellitus.
Syzygium Jambolium -
Should be given in mother
tincture form or powder form.
Very fast diminution
and disappearance of sugar from urine.
Also reduces the increasing level of blood sugar and glycosuria.
Very large amount of urine causes great thirst.
Prickly heat in the upper part of body.
Old non-healing ulcers of skin.
Weakness and emaciation.
Useful in Diabetes Mellitus
with skin affection
Like- skin irritation, boils, ulceration, acne, carbuncles
with itching eczema.
If administered at suitable intervals in Diabetic Mellitus,
the blood sugar & urine sugar may remain at normal level.
Avoid - Overdoses (causes weakness)
Uranium Nitricum -
Great emaciation & debility.
Generalised oedema & swelling.
Excessive thirst with nausea & vomiting.
Voracious appetite & eating followed by flatulence.
Profuse urination with burning in urethra.
Unable to retain urine.
Acrid urine. Dry skin and mouth.
Complete impotency in males.
Given in low potencies.
Patient is always doing something to keep his mind busy.
Urine contains phosphates & sugar & albumin.
Great weakness & loss in weight.
Diabetes during pregnancy.
Continuous restlessness >> Keeping busy or occupied.
Lactic acid -
This acid is found in butter
Very good in gastro hepatic variety of Diabetic Mellites.
Light yellow coloured urine.
Frequent and large quantity.
Dry skin and dry tongue.
Increased appetite copious salivation.
Constipation. Stool small and hard.
Morning sickness >> eating.
Phosphoric Acid -
Diabetes of nervous origin
Caused by- grief, worry and anxiety.
Patient. is indifferent to everything.
Apethetic from unusual struggling with adverse circumstances.
Severe mental and physical stress.
Loss of appetite.
Urine in large quantities, colourless contains phosphates.
Natrum muriaticum -
Polyuria- Frequent urination,
Loss of appetite and sleep.
Debility and emaciation,
<< on alternate days.
Increase in desire for salt.
depressed females who want to be alone and cry.
Chief remedy when there is
deficiency of insulin by pancreas. Disturbed digestion and
Depressed with suicidal instinct.
Brown bitter coating on tongue.
Increasing thirst for cold drinks.