to anything that nourishes the body. It includes solids,
semisolids and liquids, which help to sustain the body and
keep it healthy.
Food is a complex
mixture of nutrients and non-nutrients. Nutrients are substances
essential to the body as they perform important functions
in our body. These when deficient in our food intake lead
to ill health.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well being and as food is closely related to health it performs
functions at all the above levels.
of food are -
1] PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS : -
There are 3
physiological functions That food performs,
giving function -
Body requires energy for performing various activities like
sitting, standing, etc and also for activities performed
within the body like beating of the heart, expansion and
contraction of the lungs. Nutrients like carbohydrates &
fats perform this function. These nutrients when burnt in
the body energy is released which is used to perform the
Building function -
The body is made up of several cells. During growth these
cells increase in size and also new cells are added to existing
ones. Also there is a constant wear and tear of old cells.
These have to be replaced. This is called repair. For both
these processes proteins are essential.
and regulatory function -
Protective function refers to prevention of infection in
the body by ensuring that the disease fighting capacity
of the body is well functioning
Regulatory function is role of food in controlling body
processes like beating of heart, maintenance of body temp
etc. Vitamins, Minerals & Proteins perform this function
in the body.
FUNCTIONS : -
with someone implies social acceptance.
Food is also an important part of festivals anywhere in
the world. Food & religion also go hand in hand. People
of a particular religion have common eating patterns.
FUNCTION : -
Food is a way
through which emotional needs like need for security love
and affection are satisfied. You often serve food as a reward
to show love towards
WHAT IS DIET ?
is : -
- What you eat or one's habitual eating
-To restrict oneself of particular food to reduce weight
-Change made in the food you eat according to the disease
Every individuals need for different nutrients like calories,
proteins, fats, vitamins & minerals is different and varies
with age, sex, activity level, environmental factors, physiological
conditions & pathological condition . Therefore diet also
changes according to:
1] AGE -
- Preschool age
- School age
- Adolescent age
- Old age
LEVEL : -
- Sedentary work
- Moderate work
- Heavy work
4] PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS : -
CONDITIONS : -
like Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease. Gastrointestinal
Diseases like piles, diarrhoea, Dysentery, peptic ulcer
Kidney Diseases like nephrotic syndrome, Renal calculus,
and renal failure
Liver Diseases like Hepatitis, cirrhosis Diabetes Mellitus
a Balanced Diet?
is a diet, which fulfills all the requirement of the body
for different nutrients like calories, vitamins, minerals
for its proper functioning.
It is a defined as a diet which contains different foods
in those quantities and proportion that the need for different
nutrients like calories, vitamins minerals is met with and
a small extra amount is provided to make up for a period
when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately like
in periods of low intake, change in nature of diet, nutrients
lost during cooking.
points in the above definition are explained as follows
Diet consists of different types of food.
This is done by selecting food items from 3 food groups
classified according to the function they perform, in each
& every meal.
The food groups are
A] Energy giving food group which includes -
Carbohydrate rich foods -
Cereals- Rice, wheat,
jawar, Bajra, Raji etc
Roots & Tubers-Potato, sweet potato, yam, etc
Sugar, Jaggery, Honey
Fat rich foods-
Building food group which includes -
Milk & Milk Products
Meat/ Fish / Poultry / egg
Nuts and oilseeds
and regulatory functions performing food group which
Yellow & Orange fruits- Mango, papaya
Citrus fruits- lemon, orange, lime
Other fruits- Guava, Banana, pear, Peach, plums
Green leafy vegetable - spinach, fenugreek
Yellow orange vegetable - Pumpkin, carrot
Others - Lady finger, brinjal, Cauliflower, cabbage
Diet meets the nutrient needs.
This is because the right amount
and proportion of foods are selected. The amount of food
are selected based on R .D. 1 (Recommended Dietary intake)
for different nutrients required by the individual. R. D.
1 is the amount of nutrient to be actually consumed in order
to meet the requirement of the body (to prevent symptoms
of deficiency and maintain normal level of nutrients in
the body) and a small extra amount to make up for the period
when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately through
your food intake
diet provides for periods of leanness.
This is obvious as it is based on R. D. 1 which already
includes a margin of safety.