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Allergic Rhinitis

DEFINITION-

It is a condition characterized by the presence of following symptoms -
1] Sneezing attacks
2] Nasal discharge
3] Blockage of the nose
4] Itching of eyes and throat
5] Watering of the eyes

CAUSES-

The word Allergic Rhinitis itself suggests the basic causative factor i.e. Allergy. Now this Allergy can be experienced due to several factors seen in day to day life like: -

1] Dust, seasonal changes in the atmospheric air mainly seen in the months of May & December.
2] Pollens in the air.
3] Contacts with pets (their saliva & urine).
4] Occupational hazard - chemical factory workers exposed to chemicals, fumes and vapors.
5] Household things like washing powder, detergents, soaps, perfumes and air-fresheners.
6] Family history of allergy manifested as eczema, dermatitis, and urticaria.
7] Droplet infection - Coughing or sneezing in public without covering the nose and mouth.

CLASSIFICATION-

Broadly speaking, Allergic Rhinitis can be divided into two categories
1] Seasonal Rhinitis
2] Perennial Rhinitis.

Seasonal Rhinitis -

The word suggests that the allergic manifestations are seen occasionally or in limited period of the year. Seasonal Rhinitis is often called as" Hay fever" but truly speaking the symptoms of rhinitis are neither produced by hay nor they are associated with fever.

Perennial Rhinitis -

It means that the rhinitis is seen throughout the year. It is divided into the following varieties -

1] Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
2] Perennial Non-Allergic Rhinitis with Eosinophilia: - In this condition no allergic cause can be found and nasal discharge shows lot of Eosinophilia.
3] Vasomotor Rhinitis - In this condition, the symptom complex resemble Perennial Rhinitis without allergy and eosinophilia in the nasal secretion.
4] Nasal Polyp- these are round, smooth, pale yellow shining structures attached to the nasal lining by a narrow stalk. They can cause nasal obstruction, loss of smell and taste and may force the patient to resort to mouth breathing.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS-

This condition is to be differentiated from a similar condition called Sinusitis, which has different causative factors. Sinusitis can present a similar nasal discharge, which may be greenish yellow in colour associated with headache and fever. This suggests an infective process and requires different line of treatment.

DIAGNOSIS-

It mainly depends upon proper history of patient.
1] Family history of allergic complaints likes asthma and skin allergies. 2] Occupation - e.g. chemical factory workers.
3] Change in residence - contact of pets/pollens in the air.
4] GM stain of nasal discharge - plenty of eosinophils.

TREATMENT-

The main line of the treatment lies in the fact of getting rid of allergens -
1] Removal of pets.
2] Wearing sunglasses
3] Driving car with windows shut.
4] Avoiding going to polluted areas.

Practically it is very easy to say so, but very difficult to implement and hence truth lies in the fact that allergy can never be totally avoided unless the immunity is developed. {Consider :- truth lies in the fact that the only effective way to cure allergy is to treat the patient so that the patient's body is encouraged to develop immunity to the causes of allergy.}

COMPLICATIONS-

1) Sinusitis, 2) Allergic Bronchitis.

Commonly used medicines


HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES

1] Allium Cepa -(Red Onion)

Acrid nasal secretion and eye secretions are bland.
Spring Coryza.
FREQUENT VIOLENT CONTINUOS SNEEZING.
Sensitive to odours of flowers and strong odours.
Burning and smarting in the nose.
Craving for raw onions.
Symptoms go from left to right
<< in warm room and wet room < eating spoiled fish.

2] Arsenic album -

Thin watery acrid discharge.
Blocked nose alternating with watery discharge.
Sneezing without relief.
Cannot bear the smell of anything.
Hay fever. External cold with internal heat.
Cold sweat, Seashore coryza.
All symptoms << after midnight, fortnight or yearly Coryza
All symptoms >> by warm drinks, steam inhalation.

3] Dulcamara -

This remedy is useful to people who are prone to catarrhal affections with seasonal colds.
Dryness of nose with blocking. Summer colds.
Smallest cold air stops the nasal passage.
Want to cover the nose with warm wet clothes.
Coryza of infants.
Cold settles in nose, eyes and throat with irritation and watering
Tonsillitis from every cold season change.
<< sudden change in weather (cold & airy), cold food or drinks
>> warmth & dry weather,

4] Euphrasia -

Very useful in affections of eyes, nose, throat producing acute rhinitis or cold.
Opposite to Allium Cepa- the eye (tears) watery discharge is acrid & nasal discharge is bland.
Hot & profuse watery discharge.
This remedy is very useful in eye affection than nasal.
Eyes sensitive to light (Photophobia)
Sensation of hair in front of eyes. Wants to wipe them constantly.
>> lying down; open & cold air
<< hot air, warmth, sunlight.

5] Arum triphyllum -

Excitement of mind is keynote of remedy.
Irritability of body & mucus membrane of eyes nose and throat. Discharges are acrid causing painful sores and scars in the nose. Rawness & burning inside the organs.
Blocked nose. Has to breath through the mouth.
The discharges are bad smelling sneezing
<< night << talking, throat overuse, cold & wet climate
>> rest, warm drinks.

6] Gelsemium -

Allergic cold or seasonal cold along with fever and body ache( Flu.) Aching all over
Weakness & tired feeling.
Heavy drooping eyelids.
Sensation of hot water flowing through nostrils
Pain in throat to ear. No thirst at all
Sneezing usually << early morning.
<< emotional disturbances, humid, spring, foggy weather
>> rest, profuse sweating, urination, stimulants.

BIOCHEMIC REMEDIES

1) Natrum muriaticum- (common salt)

Headache with eyestrain,
Frontal sinus inflammation,
Discharge of clear mucus from eyes.
Great dryness of lids with pricking itching margins red.
Coryza with clear watery discharge or alternating with dry coryza Loss of smell & taste.
Nose sore with sensation of dryness & feeling of obstruction Discharge clear white like white of egg.
Epistaxis from stooping & coughing << morning.
Cold commencing with sneezing << fluent colds.

2) Ferrum phosphoricum-

First stage of all colds in the head.
Predisposition to catch cold
Smarting especially in right nasal passage < inspiration.
Nasal catarrh with trickling sensation.
Bloody discharge with bright red blood especially in children.
The cold sneezing starts like a storm, fast and violent with lot of watery discharge.

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